BASIC OF HYDRAULICS
The steady of hydraulics deals with the use & characteristics of liquids.
The term “Hydraulics” has been derived from 2 greek words

“Hydor” > meaning Water

“Aulos” > meaning Pipe
Therefore the term “Hydraulics” can be broadly defined as the work done by fluids in pipes.
Hydraulics is broadly classified into 2 types

HYDROSTATICS

HYDRODYNAMICS
3. Pressure
Pressure is defined as the force exerted over an unit area of cross section.
Pressure = Force/Area [force in  kilograms (kgs), Area in  (cm2), Pressure is in – (kg/cm2)]
Atmospheric air exerts an uniform pressure all around us. At sea level the atmosphere air
exerts a pressure of 1.03322 kgf/cm2.

Pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions & acts with equal force on equal areas & at right angles to them.
Pascals was a French Scientist who discovered this in the 17th Century. 

 5. Bernoulli’s Principle
The sums of the pressure energy & kinetic energy at various points in a system is constant if
flow rate is constant. When the crosssectional area of flow path increases, the velocity
(kinetic energy) decreases, & results in the increase of pressure energy , pressure. This
transformation of energy from one type to the other keeps the sum of the two energies
constant.
Venture effect in a gasoline engine carburetor is an application of the Bernoulli’s Principle
